Chromosome 11 represents between 4% and 4.5% of the total DNA in cells.
|Summary:||Gene examples of chromosome 11:|
|TYR encodes the enzyme tyrosinase. This enzyme converts the amino acid tyrosine to dopaquinone, which is the first step in the production of melanin. Melanin gives skin, hair and eyes their color. Mutations in the TYR gene can cause oculocutaneous albinism, which often results in white hair, light-colored eyes and very pale skin.||HBB (hemoglobin, beta): The product of this gene is a protein chain and part of hemoglobin, which binds the oxygen in red blood cells. The normal hemoglobin consists of two alpha chains and two beta chains. Mutations in beta globin can cause sickle cell anemia which is characterized by a crescent shape of red blood cells that often die prematurely. Absence or reduced amounts of detectable beta chain causes beta-zero-thalassemia and beta-plus-thalassemia respectively.|