Chromosome 14 represents between 3% and 3.5% of the total DNA in cells.
|Summary:||Gene examples of chromosome 14:|
|The SERPINA1 gene encodes the protein alpha-1 antitrypsin. This protein protects the body from being damaged by the enzyme neutrophil elastase. Neutrophil elastase is released from white blood cells to break down proteins of pathogens and thus to fight infections. Mutations in the SERPINA1 gene can lead to an alpha-1 antitrypsin protein that cannot control neutrophil elastase. As a result, neutrophil elastase can attack and destroy normal tissues such as the small air sacks in the lungs (leading to emphysema) or the liver. Affected people are afflicted with e.g. hacking cough, difficulty in breathing, coughing up blood, swollen abdomen or yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes.||TEP1 (telomerase-associated protein 1): The product of this gene is a component of a protein complex that is necessary for the activity of the enzyme telomerase. The telomerase rebuilds the ends of the chromosomes (called telomeres). With each cell division, the chromosomes loose a part (about 100 nucleotides) of their telomeres. The telomerase prevents the chromosomes from being shortened with each cell division, which would at last result in cell death. The telomerase-associated proteins are conserved from ciliates to humans.|