Chromosome 19 represents more than 2% of the total DNA in cells.
- small sized chromosome
- about 64,000,000 base pairs
- about 1,695 genes
Gene examples of chromosome 19:
The NOTCH3 gene encodes a receptor protein that may play a key role in neural development. Mutations in the NOTCH3 gene are responsible for the rare hereditary disease CADASIL (Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy). This disease is characterized by ischemic strokes (strokes due to disturbed blood flow) and dementia in people of the middle age of 45 years, mostly without risk factors like high blood pressure or migraine attacks.
AKT2 encodes an enzyme called proteine kinase that is capable of phosphorylating of several proteins (reversible attachment of phosphate groups). AKT2 is a putative oncogene. Oncogenes are genes whose mutation enhances the changeover from normal cell growth to uncontrolled tumor growth. Overproduction of the AKT2 protein contributes to a subset of malignant ductal pancreatic cancers.
The chromosome 19 image
The whole chromosome 19 image has a width of 3500 px and a height of 18247 px. It is too big to display here but you can download the chromosome 19 image. A 200 px wide overview of the chromosome can be seen on the right (bottom). Additionally, we show some details out of the original sized chromosome picture below.